It’s been around 3 and a half years since I wrote this post about why PureScript uses Bower and not npm. To recap, the reason we use Bower rather than npm by default for PureScript is that npm handles dependency incompatibilities in a way which does not work with PureScript; specifically, allowing multiple different versions of a dependency to exist in your dependency tree is not supported, because it’s extremely difficult to achieve safely.
While that post is still accurate, a few things have changed in the meantime, and there are a few frequently asked questions I think are worth clarifying.
Before I begin I’d like to mention that this is just my personal view, which is not necessarily shared by other maintainers.
Isn’t it more urgent to move away from Bower now that it is deprecated?
I don’t think so. The fact that Bower now prints a deprecation message when you install it does hurt UX a bit, which is unfortunate, but not much has really changed with Bower’s development process. It is not getting new features, but it is still getting bug fixes and security updates, and it still does what it’s supposed to (well, apart from the fact that its solver is still very basic and often fails to find install plans even where they do exist, but that was always the case).
To be clear, there are good reasons to move away from Bower, but in my mind, the fact that it prints a deprecation message on installation is not particularly high on the list.
What about yarn and flat mode?
command line option to allow you to specify that you only want one version of
any given dependency to exist throughout your install tree. At first, this
seems like it provides precisely what we’re missing from npm! Unfortunately,
it’s not quite flexible enough to fill the gap, since lots of npm packages
rely on npm’s dependency nesting in order to be able to install. Therefore,
it needs to be possible to specify that some packages be installed ‘flat’, and
others may use nesting. Specifically, what we want by default is that
be installed as usual, that is, with nesting if necessary.
Furthermore, requesting that at most one version of any PureScript dependency may exist in a dependency tree really needs to be something the package author is responsible for specifying, rather than the package consumer. I think that leaving it up to the consumer would result in a poor UX, because it would be easy to forget to do and would probably result in cryptic errors when you did (possibly “module not found” or “duplicate module” errors).
There is an npm rfc for singleton packages which addresses both of these issues, but it has not yet been accepted or implemented.
What about package sets and Spago?
Most package managers, including Bower, work by having package authors specify version ranges, or bounds, on each of their dependencies. When you ask your package manager to install those dependencies, it tries to find an install plan, that is, a specific version for each of your dependencies (including your transitive dependencies) such that for each dependency, the version which has been selected satisfies all of the constraints imposed on that dependency, for everything else in the install plan which depends on it. For example, if:
- you depend on packages A and B,
- B depends on A as well,
- you specify a version range of
>=1.0.0 <3.0.0on A,
- the version of B you want specifies a version range of
>=1.0.0 <2.0.0on A,
then a solver might end up selecting, say, version 1.1.0 of A. Note that even if a version 2.0.0 of A is available, we can’t select it because we need to satisfy our own constraints on the version of A we select as well as B’s.
In the meantime since I wrote that Bower post, an alternative approach called ‘package sets’ has appeared, inspired by Haskell’s Stackage. In the package-set approach, a brave group of people volunteer as package set curators, and they assemble a collection of libraries at fixed versions such that all of the libraries are known to work together. Package sets themselves also have versions: you generally will depend on a particular package set at a particular version, which is immutable. When new versions of libraries in the set are released, the curators check that everything still works properly after updating, and if it does, a new set is constructed with updated versions of everything, and this set can be tagged and released as a new version.
The general idea is that by performing curation, the work of getting libraries to build together can be done once (by the curators) and then reused by everyone else. By comparison, when libraries release breaking changes in a bounds-and-solving-based ecosystem without package sets, it can sometimes be difficult to find install plans (especially if you don’t have a very sophisticated version solver, which we don’t); package sets provide a way of reusing the work done to find successful install plans.
So what about package sets? I think they’re great and you should totally use them! Fabrizio and Justin have been doing some really fantastic work on the package-sets repository, which provides PureScript package sets, and Spago, a package manager and build tool which makes use of package sets to make it easier to get all of your dependencies installed and working together.
Seriously, if you use PureScript and you haven’t tried Spago out yet, drop everything and do it right now.
Package sets versus bounds and solving
Note that the two approaches are not incompatible with each other. Take for example the Haskell ecosystem, which makes good use of both approaches. In particular, I suspect that the fact that Haskell libraries (mostly) have version bounds makes the package set curators’ job quite a bit easier, since it makes the task of letting library authors know that their libraries need updating (and why) much more easily automatable; see the Stackage issue tracker for some examples. Also, I’m often very grateful that library authors include version bounds in their Haskell libraries, because occasionally you do need to make tweaks to your package set, e.g. to use the latest version of a particular library because you need a particular feature or fix. When you do this, you may find that your dependencies no longer compile together, and your package set can no longer help you resolve this. It’s in this situation that version bounds (and a solver) can be really helpful.
I think the ideal situation for package management is that you can choose where to situate yourself on the spectrum where you have no package sets and just version solving at one end, and no solving and just package sets on the other. Currently in PureScript you have to choose between one of the two extremes.
It would be nice to have a proper package registry
Two of the most important properties you want in package registries are availability and integrity. By ‘availability’ I mean being able to get things when you ask for them; a package registry which was often down for maintenance would not score highly on availability. By ‘integrity’ I mean being sure that nobody has tampered with something when you download it.
One of my least favourite things about the current state of PureScript package management is that it is all based on tags in git repositories, which are just about the worst possible option on both fronts. If a maintainer of any package you depend on decides one day that they can’t be bothered any more and deletes the repository, your build breaks. (Hopefully someone else has a cached copy.) Additionally, a well-meaning maintainer could mutate a tag in their repository to point at a different commit, meaning that different people get different code depending on when they performed the install.
I would very much like PureScript to start using a proper package registry at some point in order to address these issues. It would be great to be able to use the npm registry, but that might be awkward without the singleton packages feature I mentioned above (unless we want to hack together a nonstandard client or something). Other interesting possibilities are entropic and IPFS.